Rising Sea Levels
Published Thursday, June 15, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0555
Sea level rise increases the frequency and severity of coastal flooding and rates of coastal erosion. Sea level rise will continue far beyond the 21st century, even if global temperature increase is limited to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This POSTnote sets out the causes and likely future levels of sea level rise and its implications. It updates POSTnote 363 on Sea Level Rise, published in September 2010.
Global Health Inequalities
Published Tuesday, May 2, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0553
A POSTnote which reviews trends in global health inequalities in the context of the transition from the Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals.
Cyber Security of UK Infrastructure
Published Tuesday, May 2, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0554
The Government has identified ‘cyber’ as one of six Tier 1 threats to UK national security. This POSTnote focuses on the cyber security of the UK’s critical national infrastructure, describing measures to improve cyber security and challenges in implementing them. It also reviews the new National Cyber Security Strategy, along with international policy and legislation.
Topics: Armed forces, Arms control, Aviation, Central government, Data protection, Emergencies and disaster management, Employment, Energy, EU law and treaties, Financial institutions, Health services, Industry, Information technology, Intelligence services, International law, International trade, Internet and cybercrime, Ministers, Offensive weapons, Privacy, Railways, Regulation, Roads, Security industry, Standards, Students, Terrorism, Training, Utilities, Water
Published Monday, April 24, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0552
Quantum Technologies use the behaviour of matter and light that is normally only observed at very small scales. This POSTnote introduces recent advances, applications, and UK initiatives to support their development and commercialisation. It also reviews policy concerns such as privacy, access to new technologies and secure communications.
Topics: Armed forces, Arms control, Aviation, Companies, Defence equipment and procurement, Defence expenditure, Defence policy, Economic policy, Employment, EU budget, European Commission, Industry, Intellectual property, International trade, Medicine, Research and innovation, Roads, Science, Utilities, Water
Dietary Advice, Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Published Friday, March 3, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0551
This note focuses on the latest UK dietary advice given to women from family planning through pregnancy and into breastfeeding.
Future Energy Efficiency Policy
Published Monday, February 27, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0550
This POSTnote outlines the benefits and costs of future improvements in energy efficiency across various UK sectors. It then describes the barriers to energy efficiency measures, outlines options for future energy efficiency policy and summarises analyses of the effectiveness of different policy options.
Greenhouse Gas Removal
Published Friday, February 3, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0549
The 2015 Paris Agreement called for a balance between sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and their removal by 2100 to halt global temperature rise. This POSTnote explains why Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR) techniques may be required to achieve this goal, outlines the benefits of and concerns about them, and considers policy options.
New Plant Breeding Techniques
Published Wednesday, February 1, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0548
This note outlines some of the new plant breeding techniques developed recently and looks at their applications and the regulatory challenges they raise
Published Tuesday, January 31, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0547
Environmental crime is generally used to describe any illegal activity that harms the environment. It can also have serious human health and social impacts. This POSTnote outlines the different types of environmental crime and options for tackling them.
UK Trends in Infectious Disease
Published Monday, January 23, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0545
This POSTnote looks at recent UK trends in infectious disease, with a focus on those infections for which vaccines are not yet available, and where the development of antimicrobial resistance is a serious concern.
Reform of Freshwater Abstraction
Published Friday, January 20, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0546
In some parts of the UK, high levels of water abstraction are reducing the quantity and quality of surface water (rivers, lakes) and groundwater (water accumulated in spaces in soil and rocks). This POSTnote sets out the challenge of balancing competing requirements for freshwater, and summarises proposed reforms to the abstraction system in England and Wales and their implications
Published Monday, January 9, 2017 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0544
A POSTnote that considers current approaches to promoting integrity in research.
The Water-Energy-Food Nexus
Published Friday, December 9, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0543
The term nexus describes the key interactions between parts of a system or systems. This POSTnote summarises current understanding of the interactions between water, energy and food production and examines how nexus approaches can be used to inform policy decisions.
Natural Capital: An Overview
Published Wednesday, December 7, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0542
The benefits derived from natural resources include food, recreation and clean air and water. The aim of valuing these resources is to quantify better the cost of their degradation. This POSTnote summarises how to value natural capital, discusses the advantages and challenges of approaches and describes some initiatives to secure natural capital for the future.
Published Wednesday, November 23, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0541
This POSTnote covers current and future uses of genome editing, how it is regulated and the potential concerns it raises.
Published Tuesday, October 25, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0540
In 2016, the US President stated that the danger of a terrorist group obtaining and using a nuclear weapon was “one of the greatest threats to global security”. This briefing provides an overview of the key threats to nuclear security, and of UK and international initiatives that seek to address them.
Creating age-friendly cities
Published Tuesday, October 18, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0539
This POSTnote examines how housing, outdoor spaces and transport can be made more age-friendly. It also highlights challenges for designing and delivering age-friendly cities.
Green Space and Health
Published Monday, October 17, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0538
A range of bodies, including Government agencies, have promoted the possible physical and mental health benefits of access to green space. This POSTnote summarises the evidence for physical and mental health benefits from contact with nature, such as reducing rates of non-communicable diseases, and the challenges for urban green spaces.
Rewilding and Ecosystem Services
Published Thursday, September 29, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0537
This POSTnote explores the consequences of increasing the role of natural processes within landscapes. Evidence from the UK and abroad suggests that rewilding can benefit both wildlife and local people, but animal reintroductions could adversely affect some land-users.
Designing a Circular Economy
Published Monday, September 26, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0536
Circular economies recover resources at their highest quality and keep them in circulation for longer. Shifting to this model could alleviate concerns arising from current approaches to material use, such as resource insecurity and pollution. This POSTnote outlines what a circular economy could look like and summarises some of the benefits of, and challenges to, creating one.