Automation and the Workforce
Published Friday, August 12, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0534
Automation technologies can reduce costs and raise productivity. However, there is considerable uncertainty over their potential effects on the UK workforce. This note provides an overview of how these technologies are being used; and potential implications for employment, skills, education and inequality in the coming decades.
Published Tuesday, August 9, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0533
This POSTnote updates POSTnote 455 (January 2014), summarising the latest data on scale of use, safety and quality of electronic cigarettes, and their value as a stop smoking tool. It also explores the implications of the new EU Tobacco Products Directive and regulatory approaches in the UK.
Integrating Health and Social Care
Published Tuesday, August 2, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0532
An ageing population and the increasing prevalence of long-term conditions are putting pressure on health and social care services. The four UK nations have committed to better integration between health and social care as one solution to these challenges. This briefing outlines what integration is, examines policies to enable it and gives examples of integration in England. It also looks at the evidence on the challenges of achieving integration and assessing the effectiveness of approaches.
Sugar and Public Health
Published Monday, June 20, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0530
This POSTnote summarises the health risks associated with eating a diet high in sugar and outlines the policy options that might best enable people to limit their sugar consumption.
Adapting Urban Areas to Flooding
Published Friday, June 17, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0529
Most properties, businesses and related infrastructure at risk of flooding are in urban areas, where more than 80% of the UK population live. This note summarises how urban areas can be better managed to adapt to flood risk from rivers, surface water, sewers and ground water.
Marine Microplastic Pollution
Published Sunday, June 5, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0528
Plastic pollution is accumulating rapidly in the world’s oceans. The potential effects of microplastics on the environment and human health are an area of active research. This POSTnote summarises their sources and spread, the evidence that they present a risk and possible strategies to reduce plastic pollution.
Infant Mortality and Stillbirth in the UK
Published Friday, May 27, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0527
A POSTnote which reviews recent data on stillbirth and infant mortality rates in the UK and examines the factors contributing to increased risk. It then looks at the policy options that may help to improve health outcomes for infants and their families.
Addressing Islamic Extremism
Published Wednesday, May 25, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0526
In the UK, groups that hold extreme views have included nationalists, the far right, and more recently Islamic extremists. Government policy has mainly focused on the latter although the Counter-Extremism and Safeguarding Bill, announced in the Queen's Speech and due to be introduced this year, covers most types. This POSTnote looks at Islamic extremism, radicalisation and deradicalisation, and the policy responses to violent and non-violent extremism.
Financial Technology (FinTech)
Published Tuesday, May 24, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0525
Financial Technology (FinTech) describes the application of digital technology to financial services. This POSTnote reviews how and why FinTech is being used, and the benefits and challenges it presents to the UK.
Topics: Companies, Competition, Consumers, Economic policy, Equality, Financial institutions, Financial services, Information technology, Internet and cybercrime, Privacy, Regulation, Research and innovation, Small businesses, Standards
Education in Youth Custody
Published Tuesday, May 17, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0524
Recent government policy emphasises putting education at the heart of youth custody. A review of the youth justice system is due to be published in summer 2016. This POSTnote looks at the literature on the provision and quality of education in youth custody in England and Wales. And it examines the challenges in providing education to a population with particular needs.
Barriers to Healthy Food
Published Wednesday, May 4, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0522
This briefing reviews current diets and barriers to healthy food including price, marketing, skills and location. It then outlines current initiatives to improve diets.
Carbon Footprint of Heat Generation
Published Tuesday, May 3, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0523
Heat Policy takes into account the carbon footprint of different heating technologies. This POSTnote summarises evidence about the carbon footprints of current and emerging heating technologies in the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors. It then outlines wider considerations for heat policy and broad assessments of the ‘best’ way to reduce emissions from heating.
Access to Water and Sanitation
Published Wednesday, April 20, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0521
This briefing discusses the challenge of increasing access to water and sanitation in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Digital Forensics and Crime
Published Wednesday, March 9, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0520
Digital forensic science is the process of obtaining, analysing and using digital evidence in investigations or criminal proceedings. Digital evidence ranges from images of child sexual exploitation to the location of a mobile phone. This note looks at the use of digital forensics by UK law enforcement agencies. It covers how evidence is obtained, the legislation and regulation in this area, and the efforts being made to address the challenges faced by practitioners.
Topics: Crime, Industry, Information technology, Intelligence services, Internet and cybercrime, Privacy, Regulation, Research and innovation, Security industry, Standards, Telecommunications, Terrorism
Electronic Health Records
Published Monday, February 8, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0519
A POSTnote which explains the plans to introduce electronic health records for everyone. As well as background on what information such records will contain, the paper discusses the opportunities and challenges implementing them will involve.
Psychological Health of Military Personnel
Published Wednesday, February 3, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0518
A POSTnote which examines the impact of military service on the psychological health of serving personnel, reservists, veterans and their families. It outlines what is known about the effectiveness of interventions, and highlights areas for further research.
Intellectual Property and Plants
Published Tuesday, January 19, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0517
This POSTnote considers the different intellectual property rights approaches available to plant
Trends in the Environment
Published Tuesday, January 5, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0516
Human activities interact with natural systems in complex ways; they can cause long-term damage to systems humans are dependent on. This POSTnote summarises a range of such pressures on the environment. It also identifies a number of trends and their effects on the UK.
Policing Domestic Abuse
Published Wednesday, December 16, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0515
Domestic abuse refers to a range of behaviours – psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional – that are directed towards partners, ex-partners or family members. This POSTnote examines the prevalence and nature of domestic abuse and the policing response. It examines how the policing response could be informed by research about the effectiveness of current and alternative approaches, and the possible benefits for victims, their families and offenders.
UK Commercial Space Activities
Published Tuesday, December 15, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0514
The UK space industry had a turnover of £11.8bn in 2012/13.1 By 2030, the UK Government and industry want this to grow to £40bn. In December 2015 the Government published the UK’s first National Space Policy, which sets out its vision for achieving growth. This POSTnote describes the UK space industry and potential barriers to growth.