Infant Mortality and Stillbirth in the UK
Published Friday, May 27, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0527
A POSTnote which reviews recent data on stillbirth and infant mortality rates in the UK and examines the factors contributing to increased risk. It then looks at the policy options that may help to improve health outcomes for infants and their families.
Addressing Islamic Extremism
Published Wednesday, May 25, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0526
In the UK, groups that hold extreme views have included nationalists, the far right, and more recently Islamic extremists. Government policy has mainly focused on the latter although the Counter-Extremism and Safeguarding Bill, announced in the Queen's Speech and due to be introduced this year, covers most types. This POSTnote looks at Islamic extremism, radicalisation and deradicalisation, and the policy responses to violent and non-violent extremism.
Financial Technology (FinTech)
Published Tuesday, May 24, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0525
Financial Technology (FinTech) describes the application of digital technology to financial services. This POSTnote reviews how and why FinTech is being used, and the benefits and challenges it presents to the UK.
Topics: Companies, Competition, Consumers, Economic policy, Equality, Financial institutions, Financial services, Information technology, Internet and cybercrime, Privacy, Regulation, Research and innovation, Small businesses, Standards
Education in Youth Custody
Published Tuesday, May 17, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0524
Recent government policy emphasises putting education at the heart of youth custody. A review of the youth justice system is due to be published in summer 2016. This POSTnote looks at the literature on the provision and quality of education in youth custody in England and Wales. And it examines the challenges in providing education to a population with particular needs.
Barriers to Healthy Food
Published Wednesday, May 4, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0522
This briefing reviews current diets and barriers to healthy food including price, marketing, skills and location. It then outlines current initiatives to improve diets.
Carbon Footprint of Heat Generation
Published Tuesday, May 3, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0523
Heat Policy takes into account the carbon footprint of different heating technologies. This POSTnote summarises evidence about the carbon footprints of current and emerging heating technologies in the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors. It then outlines wider considerations for heat policy and broad assessments of the ‘best’ way to reduce emissions from heating.
Access to Water and Sanitation
Published Wednesday, April 20, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0521
This briefing discusses the challenge of increasing access to water and sanitation in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Digital Forensics and Crime
Published Wednesday, March 9, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0520
Digital forensic science is the process of obtaining, analysing and using digital evidence in investigations or criminal proceedings. Digital evidence ranges from images of child sexual exploitation to the location of a mobile phone. This note looks at the use of digital forensics by UK law enforcement agencies. It covers how evidence is obtained, the legislation and regulation in this area, and the efforts being made to address the challenges faced by practitioners.
Topics: Crime, Industry, Information technology, Intelligence services, Internet and cybercrime, Privacy, Regulation, Research and innovation, Security industry, Standards, Telecommunications, Terrorism
Electronic Health Records
Published Monday, February 8, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0519
A POSTnote which explains the plans to introduce electronic health records for everyone. As well as background on what information such records will contain, the paper discusses the opportunities and challenges implementing them will involve.
Psychological Health of Military Personnel
Published Wednesday, February 3, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0518
A POSTnote which examines the impact of military service on the psychological health of serving personnel, reservists, veterans and their families. It outlines what is known about the effectiveness of interventions, and highlights areas for further research.
Intellectual Property and Plants
Published Tuesday, January 19, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0517
This POSTnote considers the different intellectual property rights approaches available to plant
Trends in the Environment
Published Tuesday, January 5, 2016 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0516
Human activities interact with natural systems in complex ways; they can cause long-term damage to systems humans are dependent on. This POSTnote summarises a range of such pressures on the environment. It also identifies a number of trends and their effects on the UK.
Policing Domestic Abuse
Published Wednesday, December 16, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0515
Domestic abuse refers to a range of behaviours – psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional – that are directed towards partners, ex-partners or family members. This POSTnote examines the prevalence and nature of domestic abuse and the policing response. It examines how the policing response could be informed by research about the effectiveness of current and alternative approaches, and the possible benefits for victims, their families and offenders.
UK Commercial Space Activities
Published Tuesday, December 15, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0514
The UK space industry had a turnover of £11.8bn in 2012/13.1 By 2030, the UK Government and industry want this to grow to £40bn. In December 2015 the Government published the UK’s first National Space Policy, which sets out its vision for achieving growth. This POSTnote describes the UK space industry and potential barriers to growth.
Future of Natural Gas in the UK
Published Monday, November 16, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0513
UK shale gas exploration and efforts to mitigate climate change have stimulated debate about the future of the natural gas sector. This briefing looks at potential future pathways for the sourcing and use of natural gas in the UK. It also considers the implications for the economy, energy prices, the reliability of energy supplies and efforts to cut emissions.
Automation in Military Operations
Published Thursday, October 22, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0511
Automated technology is increasingly used in military activities such as intelligence gathering, navigation and weapons delivery. The most widespread use of automated technology to date has been remotely piloted air systems. However, each of the main military domains – air, land and sea – make use of automation. This POSTnote outlines current and potential future applications of automation in intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance and in combat. It then summarises debate over legal, ethical and societal issues, including debate over whether a pre-emptive ban is needed on future lethal autonomous weapons systems.
Topics: Armed forces, Defence equipment and procurement, Defence policy, EU defence policy, Human rights, Information technology, International law, International politics and government, Military operations, Research and innovation, Science, Terrorism
Unintentional Bias in Court
Published Thursday, October 22, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0512
When asked to interpret information and draw conclusions, people are prone to a number of well understood, unintentional errors in reasoning called cognitive biases. This POSTnote examines how cognitive biases affect reasoning and decision-making, and outlines strategies to minimise their influence in court.
Trends in ICT
Published Monday, October 19, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0510
This note looks at developments in information and communication technology (ICT) and their relevance for UK policy in the next five years. It examines the capability, use and economic impact of ICT; technical barriers; and implications for cybersecurity, privacy and internet governance.
Topics: Adult education, Broadcasting, Companies, Electricity, Employment, European Commission, Higher education, Industry, Information technology, Internet and cybercrime, Media, Research and innovation, Schools, Science, Standards, Telecommunications, Training
Forensic Language Analysis
Published Wednesday, September 30, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0509
This note examines forensic language analysis, the scientific validity of procedures and their applications, and explores the issues surrounding their use.
Deep Sea Mining
Published Friday, September 25, 2015 | POSTnotes POST-PN-0508
In March 2013, the Prime Minister said that deep-sea mining could be worth £40bn to the UK over the next 30 years. This briefing summarises the framework governing activity in international waters. It also describes the mineral deposit types being considered and the proposed extraction methods, potential environmental effects and mitigation options.