This paper gives a brief outline of separatism in Quebec, showing that many of the arguments in Canada are already being echoed in the debate about Scotland’s future relationship with the rest of the UK.Jump to full report >>
After a turbulent and violent history, relations between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians remained difficult in the 20th century. In 1976, with the election to power of the Parti Québécois in the province, Quebec set in motion a process for an independence referendum. This first referendum, held in 1980, failed by a relatively wide margin.
After generally unsuccessful attempts to amend the constitution, a second referendum was arranged for 1995. The wording of the question, set only by the Quebec government, was highly controversial. There were heated debates about what an independent Quebec’s relations with the rest of Canada would be, about currencies and about future membership of international organisations.
In the event, the referendum failed by the narrowest of margins. After the rejection, the Canadian Supreme Court made rulings on the role of the rest of Canada and the clarity of the question in any future referendum.
Commons Briefing papers RP13-47
Author: Ben Smith
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