This House of Commons Library briefing provides an overview of the legislation and guidance currently in place regarding sex and relationship education (SRE) in schools, and also outlines related reviews and proposals in Parliament.Jump to full report >>
Local authority maintained schools in England are obliged to teach sex and relationships education (SRE) from age 11 upwards, and must have regard to the Government’s SRE guidance. Academies and free schools, the majority in secondary education in England, do not have to follow the National Curriculum and so are not under this obligation. If they do decide to teach SRE, they also must have regard to the guidance.
Parents are free to withdraw their children from SRE if they wish to do so. The only exceptions to this are the biological aspects of human growth and reproduction that are essential elements of National Curriculum Science.
On 1 March 2017, the Education Secretary, Justine Greening, announced her intention to put ‘Relationships and Sex Education’ – rather than SRE – on a statutory footing. She also announced her intention to create a power to make personal, social, health and economic education (PSHE) statutory in future.
Following consultation, the RSE proposals would be put in place for teaching to start in September 2019.
The proposals involve:
Section 34 of the Children and Social Work Act 2017 provides for relationships and sex education to be taught in all schools in England.
The future of SRE has been a topic of keen parliamentary interest and wider debate in recent years, and has been the subject of numerous parliamentary debates, legislative proposals and outside campaigns. Section 3 of this briefing provides an overview of developments since the Labour Government’s review of SRE in 2008.
During and following the passage of the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 there was considerable debate about the implications of the legislation for teachers whose religious beliefs led them to oppose the measure. The then Equalities Minister stated that teachers would be able to describe their belief that marriage is between a man and a woman, while acknowledging that same-sex marriage will be available within the law. Reforms for schools to ‘actively promote’ British values, which the Government stated meant that schools should encourage pupils to respect other people, even if they do not agree with them, prompted fresh concerns from religious organisations that teachers could be required to promote same-sex marriage to which they were opposed.
This briefing applies to England only.
Commons Briefing papers SN06103
Author: Robert Long