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Fixed odds betting terminals

Published Tuesday, August 1, 2017

This Library briefing paper looks at the controversy over fixed odds betting terminals.

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What are fixed odds betting terminals?

Fixed odds betting terminals (FOBTs) are electronic machines, sited in betting shops, which contain a variety of games, including roulette. Each machine accepts bets for amounts up to a pre-set maximum and pays out according to fixed odds on the simulated outcomes of games.

The Gambling Act 2005 regulates gambling in Great Britain. The Act classifies FOBTs as B2 gaming machines. Up to four machines can be sited on betting premises. The maximum stake on a single bet is £100, the maximum prize is £500.

There are 34,388 B2 machines in Great Britain (Gambling Commission statistics, May 2017). The gross gambling yield from B2s was £1.8 billion.

Why are they controversial?

Critics point out that it is possible to lose large amounts of money and claim that the machines have a causal role in problem gambling.

The gambling industry says there is no evidence of a causal link between B2s and problem gambling. It also claims that reducing the maximum stake to £2, as some critics are campaigning for, would put betting shops and jobs at risk.

Academic research suggests the causes of problem gambling are complex and are not well understood.

The Responsible Gambling Strategy Board (an independent body advising the Gambling Commission) has noted the “regulatory dilemma” of balancing the enjoyment of the majority who gamble without experiencing harm with the protection of a minority who are at risk.

What’s been done?

The industry has taken a number of initiatives to promote responsible gambling. These include a Code of Practice, self-exclusion schemes, and the introduction of a player awareness system.

In response to public concern about B2s, the Coalition Government introduced the Gaming Machine (Circumstances of Use) (Amendment) Regulations 2015. The Regulations require those wanting to stake over £50 on a machine to load cash via staff interaction or to use account based play. The aim is to encourage greater player control and more conscious decision making.

What next?

In October 2016, the DCMS announced a review of gaming machines and social responsibility measures. The aim is to “ensure that we have the right balance between a sector that can grow and contribute to the economy, and one that is socially responsible and doing all it can to protect consumers and communities”. The review included a “close look” at B2 machines and the specific concerns about the harms they can cause.

A call for evidence closed on 4 December 2016. The Government hoped to publish its findings and proposals in spring 2017. These are not now expected "until October at the earliest".


Commons Briefing papers SN06946

Author: John Woodhouse

Topic: Gambling

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