UK aid: frequently asked questions
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-7996
What is aid? What is the UN 0.7% aid target and why has the UK adopted it? Which government departments spend UK aid? What impact does UK aid have? What will be the impact of Brexit on UK aid? These and other questions are answered in an accessible way in this briefing paper.
Topics: Africa, Asia, Central government, Climate change, EU budget, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Human rights, International development, International economic relations, International organisations, International politics and government, International trade, Parliament
T Levels: Reforms to Technical Education
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-7951
This House of Commons Library Briefing Paper provides an overview of proposals to reform the system of technical education in England through the introduction of new T Level qualifications.
Research and development spending
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers SN04223
R&D spending in the UK. Including analysis of R&D by region and industry, and international comparisons of R&D.
Leaving the European Union: Stability of the United Kingdom’s Union
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Lords Library notes LLN-2018-0147
This House of Lords Library Briefing has been prepared in advance of the debate due to take place on 17 January 2019 in the House of Lords on the motion moved by Lord Lisvane (Crossbench), “that this House takes note of the possible effects of Brexit on the stability of the Union between the parts of the United Kingdom".
The European Economic Area
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-8129
This briefing paper outlines the institutional structure of the EEA, its pros and cons and the debate over withdrawal from the EEA.
Average earnings by age and region
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-8456
This statistical note shows how average earnings have changed over time by region of the UK and for different age groups.
Independent Complaints and Grievance Scheme
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-8369
The House debated the Independent Complaints and Grievance Policy Programme Team’s Delivery Report on 19 July and agreed a new parliament-wide Behaviour Code. Procedures for making complaints and obtaining support have been put in place. This briefing note reviews the debate, the report and the background to it.
National Insurance Contributions (NICs) and the self-employed
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-7918
This paper looks at the way in which the self-employed are treated for the purposes of National Insurance, in the context of proposals made in the 2015 Budget to scrap Class 2 National Insurance contributions (NICs), and proposals in the Spring 2017 Budget to increase the rate of Class 4 NICs. In the latter case, the Government cancelled its plans a few days after the Budget, and in the former case announced in September 2018 that it would not proceed with the abolition of Class 2 NICs during this Parliament.
The Modernising Defence Programme
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-8469
This Commons Library briefing paper examines the Modernising Defence Programme (MDP)
published by the Ministry of Defence in December 2018.
Interest Rates and Monetary Policy: Key Economic Indicators
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers SN02802
Interest Rates and Monetary Policy: Data on interest rates from the UK, eurozone and the US; a summary of the Bank of England’s and international, quantitative easing policy.
Could the Withdrawal Agreement be terminated under international law?
Published Friday, December 21, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers CBP-8463
Could the UK unilaterally terminate the Withdrawal Agreement under international law if the Irish backstop, which the Agreement says is intended to be temporary, became permanent? An amendment from Sir Edward Leigh to the Government’s motion on approving the Withdrawal Agreement called for an assurance from the Government that it would terminate the Withdrawal Agreement if the EU refused to agree to removing the backstop at the end of 2021. This note looks at provisions in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties for terminating and denouncing treaties and arguments about whether these might apply in this particular case.
Self-employment in the construction industry
Published Thursday, December 20, 2018 | Commons Briefing papers SN00196
This note gives some background to the question of employment status and the difficulties it has caused in the construction sector, before discussing initiatives by both the Labour Government in 2009 and the Coalition Government in 2014, and more recent debates as to the possibility of a longer-term solution to this issue.
Parking (Code of Practice) Bill: Briefing for Lords Stages
Published Thursday, December 20, 2018 | Lords Library notes LLN-2018-0146
This House of Lords Library Briefing has been prepared in advance of the second reading in the House of Lords of the Parking (Code of Practice) Bill on 18 January 2019.