This Commons Library briefing paper provides information on the single use carrier bag charge in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, examines the legal basis for the charge, the exemptions and what will be done with the proceeds of the charge. It also examines the impact of the charges to date.Jump to full report >>
A levy or charge on single use carrier bags paid by customers to retailers.
"Single use carrier bags" generally refers to the conventional, lightweight, plastic carrier bags offered to customers in most UK supermarkets.
A 5p charge came into effect on single use carrier bags in England on 5 October 2015. This means that customers in England will pay large retailers 5 pence for new bags made of lightweight plastic material, with handles, unless the bag is exluded.
The charge in England follows the introduction of similar levies in other parts of the UK. Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland introduced a 5p levy on single use carrier bags in 2011, 2013 and 2014 respectively.
The purpose of the single use carrier bag charge is to reduce the number of bags given out, increase their re-use and reduce litter.
Many plastic bags end up as litter - on streets, beaches and in the countryside and parks. Plastic bags can be particularly damaging for marine environments. The production and disposal of plastic bags can also have a negative impact on the environment, through the oil used in their creation and the tonnes of plastic which end up in landfill.
The Climate Change Act 2008 and the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 provide the legal powers to enable UK national authorities to introduce secondary legislation making provisions about charges for single use carrier bags.
The terms for each single use carrier bag charge are slightly different in each part of the UK. Notable differences between the charges include:
On 19 January 2015, changes were introduced to the charge in Northern Ireland. The levy there now applies to all new carrier bags with a retail price below 20p, regardless of what they are made from. This change was to ensure that cheap reusable bags are also charged for, so that customers are encouraged to reuse reusable bags to their full potential. Previously, Northern Ireland had planned to raise the charge to 10p in April 2014. According to Defra, this was abandoned because the initial 5p charge had proved so succesful.
On 27 December 2018, the Government launched a consultation on the charge in England, proposing extending the charge to all retailers and increasing the charge to 10p per bag. The consultation closed on 22 February 2019. The proposals are summarised:
extending the charge to include all retailers (with no reporting requirements for small and medium businesses)
increasing the charge to 10p
requiring producers of single use carrier bags to report how much they sell
removing the exemption at security restricted areas in airports
 Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Single use carrier bags: extending and increasing the charge, 27 December 2018
Biodegradable bags are not exempt anywhere in the UK. However, in England the Government initially included an exemption for biodegradable bags and has included a requirement in the legislation that the Secretary of State carries out a review and reports to Parliament by 5 October 2015 on whether there is an appropriate industry standard for a biodegradable bag that could be exempt and how this would be implemented.
The Government review of standards for biodegradable plastic carrier bags was published on 17 December 2015. It found that there were a number of standards for plastic bag biodegradability and the Government would need to conduct further work before any of these could be used to exempt biodegradable bags.
The Welsh Government estimated that single use carrier bag use between 2011 and 2014 declined by 71%; Zero Waste Scotland estimated that the 7 major grocery retailers in Scotland used about 650 million fewer single use carrier bags in the first year of the charge in Scotland; and Northern Ireland reported a 71.8% reduction in plastic bag use in its first year. Year 5 of the Northern Ireland levy (2017/18) saw a reduction in bag numbers of 67.1% compared to the 2012 baseline of 300 million.
A PQ answer in October 2018 stated that
Commons Briefing papers CBP-7241
Authors: Sara Priestley; Nikki Sutherland