University Technical Colleges (UTCs) are schools introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government, originally for 14-19 year olds, that work alongside employers and universities to deliver technical education and core curriculum subjects. This briefing sets out their conception, introduction, performance, and future direction.Jump to full report >>
What are University Technical Colleges?
University Technical Colleges (UTCs) are schools introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government, that work alongside employers and universities to deliver technical education and core curriculum subjects. Most students join UTCs aged 14, but it is expected that any new UTCs will run from 11 to 18. UTCs operate as a type of academy in England. This means that they do not have to follow the national curriculum or employ teachers with qualified teacher status (apart from in certain circumstances such as Special Educational Needs Coordinators).
All UTCs are associated with the Baker Dearing Trust, which is a charity that was set up by Lord Baker in 2010. The charity “assists with the selection of potential UTCs for DfE approval and then [helps] each UTC prepare for opening… in particular by liaising between the sponsors and the DfE”. It charges UTCs a membership fee of £10,000 (Source: Charity Commission, Baker Dearing Educational Charity Trust)
UTCs: Profile and Performance
Source: National Audit Office, Investigation into UTCs (2019), p.15.
Note: Student figures rounded to the nearest ten before 2018. Census taken in January each year. Source: DfE, ‘Schools Pupils and Their Characteristics- Underlying Data’, 2014-2018.
In February 2017, the former Education Secretary Michael Gove stated that UTCs “had failed because of their lack of academic rigour” and dividing education at 14 had not worked (The Times, 10 February 2017). The former Chancellor, George Osborne, told the Education Select Committee in 2018 that the UTC model of starting at 14 “worked very well in some cases, but it clearly has not worked in others” (Education Select Committee, Oral Evidence: Education in the North, HC 819, 2 May 2018, Q11).
The Secretary of State for Education, Gavin Williamson, stated in October 2019 on a visit to Plymouth UTC, that:
We should never underestimate the importance and the power that technical qualifications have in terms of driving our economic performance. And UTCs, such as this one in Plymouth, are a perfect exemplar of what we need to be doing in the future.
(Source: DfE, ‘Education Secretary Gavin Williamson visited students at UTC Plymouth College’, Twitter, 9 October 2019).
Improvement schemes post-2017 and Plans for future UTCs
The DfE began a three-year improvement programme for UTCs in September 2017. This included allowing UTCs to apply to align their age range more closely with other secondary schools, if there is a need for additional school places in the area. Since 2017, local authorities have a statutory duty to raise awareness of schools with an atypical age range. From January 2018 schools have had a statutory duty to allow access of UTC representatives to their schools to inform pupils about technical education.
In February 2019, Lord Baker and the Minister for the Schools System Lord Agnew wrote to the leaders of UTCs recommending that they join multi-academy Trusts in order to aid recruitment and financial stability. 20 of the 50 UTCs in March 2019 were already part of multi-academy trusts (FE Week, 15 March 2019). Membership of a multi-academy trust formed part of the new Memorandum of Understanding between the DfE and the Baker Dearing Trust in June 2019.
Lord Baker also stated in October 2019 that “any new [UTCs] that come along will go from 11 to 18”, in an attempt to increase recruitment and close the gender gap.
The current Chair of the Baker-Dearing Trust stated his priority for the next three years was filling existing UTCs, rather than opening new ones (FE Week, 14 September 2019). Three new UTCs were proposed in November 2019, with the Government due to make a decision whether to approve next summer (FE Week, 29 November 2019).
Commons Briefing papers CBP-7250
Authors: Robert Long; Philip Loft; Shadi Danechi