House of Commons Library briefing on mental health policy in England.Jump to full report >>
Around one in four people in the UK suffer from a mental health problem each year. The NHS has set out that it wants to achieve “parity of esteem” between mental and physical health, in terms of access to services, quality of care and allocation of resources. While the achievement of parity of esteem has been a long term-policy goal, since 2010 this aim has increasingly featured in legislation and in Government and NHS policy statements.
In February 2016 an Independent Mental Health Taskforce published The Five Year Forward View for Mental Health. This made a series of recommendations for the NHS and Government to improve outcomes in mental health by 2020/21, including ending the practice of sending people out of their local area for inpatient care and increasing access to talking therapies. The Government and NHS England accepted the Taskforce recommendations and committed to support their implementation.
The NHS Long Term Plan, published on 7 January 2019, provided a number of further commitments to improve mental health services. On adult mental health services, the Plan committed to providing an additional 380,000 people per year with access to adult psychological therapies by 2023/24. It also stated that new services to support patients going through a mental health crisis would be introduced.
To support the ambitions within the Plan NHS England has made a renewed commitment that expenditure on mental health services will grow faster than the overall NHS budget, creating a new ringfenced local investment fund worth at least £2.3 billion a year by 2023/24.
In October 2017, the Government commissioned an independent review of the Mental Health Act 1983, in response to concerns about rising rates of detention and the disproportionate use of the Act among people from black and minority ethnic (BAME) groups. The final report was published in December 2018 (‘Modernising the Mental Health Act: Increasing choice, reducing compulsion’). The Government has said it will publish a White Paper in early 2020, setting out their response in full, followed by legislation when Parliamentary time allows. There was a Westminster Hall debate on reform of the Mental Health Act 1983 on 25 July 2019 [WH Deb vol 663] and further background can be found in the Library debate pack briefing prepared for this (CDP-2019-0193).
The briefing also looks at the use of force in mental health units. Current guidance, including the Code of Practice to the Mental Health Act and that published by NICE, provides direction to service providers and healthcare staff about the use of force and restrictive intervention. The Mental Health Units (Use of Force) Act 2018 was introduced, as a Private Members Bill, by Labour MP Steve Reed, following the death of a constituent, Seni Lewis, in 2010. Most of the provisions of the Act have not yet come in to force, but it will increase the oversight and management of the use of force in mental health units.
As health is a devolved matter, the Governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are responsible for setting their own policies in this area. Links to policies of the devolved administrations are provided in section 6 of this briefing.
Links to Library briefings on more specific areas of mental health policy, such as children and young people’s mental health, suicide prevention, and perinatal and women’s mental health, are provided in section 7.
Commons Briefing papers CBP-7547
Authors: Elizabeth Parkin; Tom Powell