This House of Commons Library briefing paper sets out the current rules for election of a Conservative Party leader, and the background to their introduction.Jump to full report >>
This briefing paper sets out the current rules on Conservative Party leadership elections and the background to their introduction in 1998. It sets out details of the previous elections held under the current rules. It also includes brief details of the pre-1998 rules.
The current system of electing the Leader of the Conservative Party consists of two stages:
The rules for valid nomination of candidates and the process for reducing the field down to the two, should there be more than two candidates, are determined by the Executive of the 1922 Committee in consultation with the Conservative Party Board. In the event of a leadership election the Chairman will announce the procedure to be followed. The broad principles are set out in the Conservative Party Constitution but not the detailed rules.
A leadership contest can be triggered in two ways:
A leader losing the confidence of the Parliamentary party is not allowed to participate in the resulting leadership election.
The appendices to the briefing include details of Conservative Party leaders since 1900, election results from 1965-1997, Chairs of the 1922 Committee since 1923, and the broad principles of leadership elections as set out in the Conservative Party Constitution.
Before 1965, leaders of the Conservative Party were not elected, but “emerged” after discussion among Conservative MPs. In 1965, the Party introduced a procedure for the leader to be elected by a ballot of Conservative MPs. Edward Heath was the first leader elected under the 1965 rules.
The current rules for electing the leader of the Conservative Party were introduced in 1998. They were initially set out in principle in the Conservative document, The Fresh Future. This document formed the basis for reforms to the organisation of the Conservative Party following its defeat in the 1997 general election.
In 2005, then leader Michael Howard, announced his intention to resign as party leader. He indicated that before he stood down he wanted to oversee changes to the Party’s process of electing a new leader. This would have given a role for the Party’s National Convention but left the final decision with Conservative MPs. The proposals were not taken up and David Cameron was elected under the existing rules, defeating David Davis in a ballot of the Party’s membership.
On 24 June 2016, the day after the UK’s referendum on its continued membership of the European Union, David Cameron announced his resignation. He stated that in his view, the aim should be to have a new Prime Minister in place by the start of the Conservative Party conference in October 2016.
Theresa May was confirmed as leader of the Conservative Party on 13 July 2016 after the most recent leadership contest. There were initially five candidates but after two ballots of Conservative MPs all but Theresa May had been eliminated or withdrawn and Mrs May was then confirmed as Party leader without the need for a ballot of Party members.
On 12 December 2018, Sir Graham Brady, current Chairman of the 1922 Committee, confirmed that he had received the required number of letters to initiate a vote of no confidence in Theresa May. The 15% threshold is currently 48 letters. The ballot was held later that day with the result declared just after 9pm in Committee Room 14. Theresa May won the vote by 200 votes to 117. She cannot now be challenged for 12 months.
On 24 June 2016, the day after the UK’s referendum on its continued membership of the European Union, David Cameron announced his resignation. He stated that in his view, the aim should be to have a new Prime Minister in place by the start of the Conservative Party conference in October. The next leader of the Conservative Party will be announced on 9 September 2016.
The 1922 Committee met on 27 June 2016 recommended that the election should be completed by 2 September 2016. The following day the Conservative Party Board met and instead proposed the leadership election should be completed by 9 September 2016 to allow for the “full participation of members”. This timetable was agreed by the Board of the full 1922 Committee on 29 June. Nominations opened immediately and closed on Thursday 30 June at midday.
The result of the first ballot of Conservative Members of Parliament was announced on Tuesday 5 July at 19:00.
Theresa May - 165 votes
Andrea Leadsom - 66 votes
Michael Gove - 48 votes
Stephen Crabb - 34 votes
Liam Fox - 16 votes
Liam Fox was therefore eliminated. Later in the evening Stephen Crabb also confirmed he would drop out. It meant that the third of the three candidates in the ballot in the next round would be elimanted, with the top two due to go forward to the vote by the Conservative Party membership.
The second ballot result was announced around 16:30 on Thursday 7 July.
Theresa May - 199 votes
Andrea Leadsom - 84 votes
Michael Gove - 46 votes.
On Monday 11 July Andrea Leadsom announced she was withdrawing her candicacy and was supporting Theresa May. David Cameron later announced that he would resign as Prime Minister on Wednesday 13 July following his last Prime Minister's Questions. Theresa May was confirmed as Prime Minister later that evening.
Commons Briefing papers SN01366
Author: Neil Johnston
Topic: Political parties