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Components of GDP: Key Economic Indicators

Published Monday, January 13, 2020

Components of GDP: data on the components that make up GDP, including household consumption, government spending, investment, trade and output by sector.

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GDP can be analysed in terms of the output produced of different industries of the economy and by expenditure on goods and services made by households, businesses and the government.

Overall, GDP is estimated to have grown by 0.1% in Sep-Nov 2019 compared to the previous quarter (Jun-Aug 2019).

GDP by Industry

Services are the sector that account for the largest part of the economy – in 2018, they accounted for 80% of economic output, the production sector for 14%, construction for 6% and agriculture for 1%.

In Sep-Nov 2019, service sector output increased by 0.1% in real terms compared with the previous quarter.

Manufacturing output down 0.8% (the production sector was also down 0.6% overall), and construction sector output was up by 1.1%.

Service sector quarterly growth

GDP by Expenditure

Household consumption is the largest element of expenditure across the economy, accounting for 63% of the total in 2018. Government consumption accounted for 19% and investment for 17%.

In July-Sept 2019, household consumption grew by 0.4% in real terms. Government consumption was up 0.3% and investment was down 0.2%. Exports were up 5.2% and imports were up 0.8% compared with the previous quarter.  

Household consumption quarterly growth


Commons Briefing papers SN02787

Author: Lorna Booth

Topic: Economic situation

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